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Cholesterin

Reduziert signifikant innerhalb von 6 Wochen den gesamt Cholesterinspiegel, LDL Cholesterin und Triglyzeride

Hypolipidemic effects of fenugreek seed powder

Bangladesh J Pharmacol 2006; 1: 64-67 Copyright © by Bangladesh Pharmacological Society

Abu Saleh M. Moosa,Mamun Ur Rashid, A.Z.S. Asadi, Nazma Ara, M. Mojib Uddin and A. Ferdaus

Department of Pharmacology, Rajshahi Medical College, Rajshahi, Bangladesh [Received 18 July 2006]

Ergebnis: Diese Studie wurde durchgeführt bei Typ II Diabetikern. Pulverisierter Bockshornkleesamen reduziert signifikant innerhalb 6 Wochen den gesamt Cholesterinspiegel, LDL Cholesterin und Triglyzeride. Nicht signifikant war die Veränderung gegenüber dem HDL Cholesterin. In der Studiengruppe von Patienten mit erhöhten Cholesterin, behandelt ohne Bockshornkleesamen, kam es zu keiner signifikanten Änderungen des Lipidprofils.

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Hypolipidemic effects of fenugreek seed powder

Lipidsenkende Eigenschaft von pulverisiertem Bockshornkleesamen

Abstract

Effects of fenugreek (Trigonella foenugraecum Linn) on serum lipid profile in hypercholesteremic type 2 diabetic patients were studied. Administration of fenugreek seed powder of 25 gm orally twice daily for 3 weeks and 6 weeks produces significant (P<0.001) reduction of serum total cholesterol, triacylglyceride and LDL-cholesterol in hypercholesteremic group but the change of serum HDL-cholesterol was not significant. On other hand, changes of lipid profile in hypercholesteremic type 2 diabetic patients without fenugreek were not significant (P<0.001). The present study suggests that fenugreek seed powder would be considered as effective agent for lipid lowering purposes.

Studiendesign: Human

Ergebnis: Diese Studie wurde durchgeführt bei Typ II Diabetikern. Pulverisierter Bockshornkleesamen reduziert signifikant innerhalb 6 Wochen den gesamt Cholesterinspiegel, LDL Cholesterin und Triglyzeride. Nicht signifikant war die Veränderung gegenüber dem HDL Cholesterin. In der Studiengruppe von Patienten mit erhöhten Cholesterin, behandelt ohne Bockshornkleesamen, kam es zu keiner signifikanten Änderungen des Lipidprofils.

Reduktion des Gesamt Cholesterins und LDL Cholesterins

Hypocholesterolemic effect of germinated fenugreek seeds in human subjects.

Plant Foods Hum Nutr.1999;53(4):359-65.

Sowmya P, Rajyalakshmi P.

Department of Foods and Nutrition, Post Graduate and Research Centre, A.N.G.R. Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India.

Ergebnis: 20 Probanden beiderlei Geschlechts  mit erhöhten Cholesterinspiegeln wurden in diese Studie aufgenommen. Es wurden zwei verschiedene Dosierungen von Bockshornkleesamen verabreicht. In beiden Gruppen kam es innerhalb eines Monats zu einer Reduktion des Gesamt Cholesterins und LDL Cholesterins, die in der höher dosierten Gruppe auch signifikant war.

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Hypocholesterolemic effect of germinated fenugreek seeds in human subjects.
Cholesterinsenkende Wirkung von gekeimten Bockshornkleesamen

Abstract

The effect of consumption of germinated fenugreek seed powder at two different levels, i.e., 12.5 g and 18.0 g on the blood lipid profiles of twenty hypocholesterolemic adults of both sexes in the age range of 50-65 years was studied. The subjects were divided into two groups, i.e., Group I and Group II who were asked to incorporate the powder into any dish of their choice at the rates of one packet per day containing 12.5 g and 18.0 g of the germinated powder, respectively, for a period of one month. Fasting blood was drawn intravenously one day before and at the end of 30 days feeding trials. The findings revealed that germination had brought distinct changes in soluble fiber content of the seeds. Consumption of the seed at both the levels resulted in a hypocholesterolemic effect. Between the two levels, higher levels of consumption, i.e., 18.0 g of the germinated seed resulted in a significant reduction in total cholesterol and LDL levels. No significant changes were found in HDL, VLDL and triglyceride levels in all the subjects.

Studiendesign: Human

Ergebnis: 20 Probanden beiderlei Geschlechts  mit erhöhten Cholesterinspiegeln wurden in diese Studie aufgenommen. Es wurden zwei verschiedene Dosierungen von Bockshornkleesamen verabreicht. In beiden Gruppen kam es innerhalb eines Monats zu einer Reduktion des Gesamt Cholesterins und LDL Cholesterins, die in der höher dosierten Gruppe auch signifikant war.

Es wurde experimentell eine Inhibierung der Fettanreicherung und eine „Up“ Regulation der LDL Rezeptoren nachgewiesen

Hypolipidemic effect of fenugreek seeds is mediated through inhibition of fat accumulation and upregulation of LDL receptor.

Obesity (Silver Spring).2010 Apr;18(4):667-74. Epub 2009 Oct 22.

Vijayakumar MV, Pandey V, Mishra GC, Bhat MK.

National Centre for Cell Science, NCCS Complex, Pune, India.

Ergebnis: Die Studie weist darauf hin, dass für dieses Extrakt eine mögliche Anwendung im Management von Dyslipidämie und assoziierten metabolischen Erkrankungen sein könnte. Es wurde experimentell einer Inhibierung der Fettanreicherung und eine „Up“ Regulation der LDL Rezeptoren nachgewiesen, die zu einem geringeren LDL Cholesterinspiegel führt.

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Hypolipidemic effect of fenugreek seeds is mediated through inhibition of fat accumulation and upregulation of LDL receptor.
Lipidsenkende Effekt des Bockshornkleesamens wird durch Inhibierung der Fett Anreicherung und Regulierung der LDL Rezeptoren vermittelt.

Abstract

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds, used as a condiment, are documented for health benefits including amelioration of abnormalities in lipid homeostasis due to its hypolipidemic properties. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the hypolipidemic effect of fenugreek seeds remain obscure. In this study, hypolipidemic effect of a novel thermostable extract of fenugreek seeds (TEFS) was evaluated in vitro by employing differentiating and differentiated 3T3-L1 cells, and HepG2 cells cultured in normal or sterol-enriched conditions. Hypolipidemic effect was studied by quantifying decrease in accumulation of fat or by western blot analysis of adipogenic and lipogenic factors. At molecular level, TEFS inhibited accumulation of fat in differentiating and differentiated 3T3-L1 cells via decreased expression of adipogenic factors such as peroxisome proliferators activated-receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), and CAAT element-binding proteins-alpha (c/EBP-alpha). We also show that following TEFS treatment, cellular triglycerides (TGs), and cholesterol concentrations decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in HepG2 cells via reduced expression of SREBP-1, at mRNA as well as protein level. Under sterol enriched condition, TEFS upregulated low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) expression resulting in enhanced LDL uptake. Treating fat supplement fed C57BL6/J mice with TEFS for 15 days resulted in decrease of serum TG, LDL-cholesterol (LDLc), and body weight in a dose- and time-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Results indicate that hypolipidemic effect of TEFS is due to inhibition of fat accumulation and upregulation of LDLR. Taken together, the study suggests that TEFS may have potential application in the management of dyslipidemia and its associated metabolic disorders.

Studiendesign: Labor – experimentell

Ergebnis: Die Studie weist darauf hin, dass für dieses Extrakt eine mögliche Anwendung im Management von Dyslipidämie und assoziierten metabolischen Erkrankungen sein könnte. Es wurde experimentell einer Inhibierung der Fettanreicherung und eine „Up“ Regulation der LDL Rezeptoren nachgewiesen, die zu einem geringeren LDL Cholesterinspiegel führt.

Statistisch signifikante Reduktion von experimentell induzierten Cholesterin Gallensteinen bei Mäusen

Dietary fenugreek seed regresses preestablished cholesterol gallstones in mice.

Can J Physiol Pharmacol.2009 Sep;87(9):684-93.

Reddy RL, Srinivasan K.

Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Mysore 570 020, India.

Ergebnis: Statistisch signifikante Reduktion von experimentell induzierten Cholesterin Gallensteinen bei Mäusen in der Gruppe mit hoch dosierten Bockshornkleesamen.

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Dietary fenugreek seed regresses preestablished cholesterol gallstones in mice.
Bockshornkleesamen: Rückbildung von Cholesterol Gallensteinen bei Mäusen

Abstract

An animal study was carried out to evaluate the influence of dietary fenugreek seeds on regression of preestablished cholesterol gallstones (CGS). CGS was induced by feeding a high-cholesterol diet for 10 weeks. After CGS induction, the animals were maintained for a further 10 weeks on experimental diets of high cholesterol, 6% fenugreek powder, 12% fenugreek powder, or basal control. Incidence of CGS and its severity were evaluated at the end of this feeding regimen. The incidence of CGS was significantly lowered as a result of dietary fenugreek seeds, the extent of regression being 61% and 64% in the low and high dose groups compared with 10% regression in the basal control group. The antilithogenic influence of dietary fenugreek was accompanied by significant reductions of more than 35% in serum cholesterol concentration. Hepatic cholesterol concentration was also profoundly lowered by dietary fenugreek, being 53%-63% lower than that of the basal control diet. Biliary cholesterol concentration was significantly lower as a result of dietary fenugreek during the post-CGS induction period, resulting in a decreased cholesterol:phospholipid ratio (0.44 and 0.40 compared with 0.79 in the basal control group). Biliary cholesterol : bile acid ratio was lowered by 67% and 73% upon feeding fenugreek, significantly lower than that in the basal control group. The cholesterol saturation index in the bile was also beneficially lowered by fenugreek treatment during the post-CGS induction period (the index was 0.90 and 0.42 compared with 1.86 in the basal control group). The present study provides evidence of the potency of hypolipidemic fenugreek seeds in regressing preestablished CGS, and this beneficial antilithogenic effect is attributable to its primary influence on cholesterol levels. This finding is significant in the context of evolving a dietary strategy to address CGS, which could help in preventing the incidence and regression of existing CGS and controlling possible recurrence.

Studiendesign: Tierversuch

Ergebnis: Statistisch signifikante Reduktion von experimentell induzierten Cholesterin Gallensteinen bei Mäusen in der Gruppe mit hoch dosierten Bockshornkleesamen.

Signifikante Reduktion von Total Cholesterin, LDLCholesterin und Triglyzeriden

Lipid-lowering and antioxidant effects of an ethyl acetate extract of fenugreek seeds in high-cholesterol-fed rats.

J Agric Food Chem.2010 Feb 24;58(4):2116-22.

Belguith-Hadriche O, Bouaziz M, Jamoussi K, El Feki A, Sayadi S, Makni-Ayedi F.

Unité de Recherche DGRST 02-08/20, Laboratoire de Biochimie, Faculté de Medecine de Sfax, Tunisie.

Ergebnis: Signifikante Reduktion von Total Cholesterin, LDLCholesterin und Triglyzeride, Erhöhung von HDL Cholesterin. Antioxidative Effekte wurden ebenfalls nachgewiesen.

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Lipid-lowering and antioxidant effects of an ethyl acetate extract of fenugreek seeds in high-cholesterol-fed rats.
Lipid reduzierende und antioxidative Eigenschaft von Bockshornkleesamen Extrakt von mit Cholesterin gefütterten Ratten

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the lipid effects, the phenolic content, and the antioxidative effects of an ethyl acetate extract of fenugreek. Wistar rats fed a standard laboratory diet or cholesterol-rich diets for 16 weeks were used. The plasma lipid levels, total phenolics, and total flavonoid contents were measured, and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and antioxidant activities were examined. Administration of fenugreek ethyl acetate extract significantly lowered the plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), while increasing the plasma level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Furthermore, the content of TBARS and catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in liver, heart and kidney decreased significantly after oral administration of the extract compared with those of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. These lipid effects and in vivo antioxidative effects were correlated with the in vitro phenolic content scavenging ability. In addition, three flavonoids (kaempferol 3-O-glycoside, apigenin-7-O-rutinoside, and naringenin) were identified by using an LC-MS/MS apparatus. Naringenin was the abundant flavonoid compound in the ethyl acetate extract, and its concentration reaches 7.23 +/- 0.09 mg/g of dry extract. These results revealed significant hypocholesterolemic effects and antioxidant activity in an ethyl acetate extract of fenugreek seed, which may be partly due to the presence of flavonoids, especially naringenin.

Studiendesign: Tierversuch

Ergebnis: Signifikante Reduktion von Total Cholesterin, LDLCholesterin und Triglyzeride, Erhöhung von HDL Cholesterin. Antioxidative Effekte wurden ebenfalls nachgewiesen.

Antilithogenes Potential aufgrund des günstigen Einflusses auf den Cholesterinstoffwechsel

Fenugreek seeds reduce atherogenic diet-induced cholesterol gallstone formation in experimental mice.

Can J Physiol Pharmacol.2009 Nov;87(11):933-43.

Reddy RL, Srinivasan K.

Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Central Food Technological Research Institute, CSIR, Mysore 570 020, India.

Ergebnis: Die Autoren bemerken ein antilithogenes Potential aufgrund des günstigen Einflusses auf den Cholesterinstoffwechsel.

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Nach sportlicher Belastung erfordern die beanspruchten Systeme des Körpers eine Erholungs- und Regenerationsphase. Diese dauert unterschiedlich lange und hängt vom Trainingszustand, Trainingsumfang und der Trainingsintensität ab. Der Kreislauf kann sich rasch innerhalb eines bis mehrerer Tage regenerieren, was durch die gewohnte Ruhepulsfrequenz bestätigt wird. Die Muskelregeneration kann nach extremer Beanspruchung bis zu mehreren Wochen dauern, wobei sich eine nicht vollständige und abgeschlossene Regeneration durch Koordinations- und Bewegungsstörungen bemerkbar machen kann. Für die Regeneration sind zwei Faktoren ausschlaggebend. Die Dauer der Entlastung und Ruhephase Der Ersatz der verbrauchten Energie durch Flüssigkeit- und Nahrungsaufnahme. Studien, durchgeführt mit dem Extrakt von Trigonella Foenum Graecum zeigen, dass in Kombination mit Dextrose (Glucose) eine raschere Energiesubstitution in den Muskeln erfolgt als bei Dextrose alleine.

Fenugreek seeds reduce atherogenic diet-induced cholesterol gallstone formation in experimental mice.

Bockshornkleesamen reduziert nahrungsinduzierte atherogen Cholesterin Gallensteine in Mäusen.

Abstract

Dietary hypocholesterolemic adjuncts may have a beneficial role in the prevention and treatment of cholesterol gallstones (CGS). In this investigation, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seed was evaluated for this potential on the experimental induction of CGS in laboratory mice. CGS was induced by maintaining mice on a lithogenic diet (0.5% cholesterol) for 10 weeks. Fenugreek seed powder was included at 5%, 10%, and 15% of this lithogenic diet. Dietary fenugreek significantly lowered the incidence of CGS in these mice; the incidence was 63%, 40%, and 10% in the 5%, 10%, and 15% fenugreek groups, respectively, compared with 100% in the lithogenic control. The antilithogenic influence of fenugreek is attributable to its hypocholesterolemic effect. Serum cholesterol level was decreased by 26%-31% by dietary fenugreek, while hepatic cholesterol was lowered by 47%-64% in these high cholesterol-fed animals. Biliary cholesterol was 8.73-11.2 mmol/L as a result of dietary fenugreek, compared with 33.6 mmol/L in high-cholesterol feeding without fenugreek. Cholesterol saturation index in bile was reduced to 0.77-0.99 in fenugreek treatments compared with 2.57 in the high-cholesterol group. Thus, fenugreek seed offers health-beneficial antilithogenic potential by virtue of its favourable influence on cholesterol metabolism.

Studiendesign: Tierversuch

Ergebnis: Die Autoren bemerken ein antilithogenes Potential aufgrund des günstigen Einflusses auf den Cholesterinstoffwechsel.